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物联网传感器如何工作的

2020-10-14

简介: 顾名思义,物联网是一个涵盖所有类型设备的保护伞。它们要么嵌入系统中,要么作为一个单独的实体存在。不管怎样,关键是他们通过

作者:阿浅 来源:物联网世界

GUOQUSHIJINIAN,JISUANJI、RUANJIANHEJISUANJISHUZAISHIJIESHANGFASHENGLEJUDADEBIANHUA。ZUOWEIYIMINGGONGCHENGSHI,ZAIZHEIGESHIDAIYONGYOUBUFENQIANGDADEJISUANNENGLISHISHIFENYOUYIDE。ZUISHOUHUANYINGDESHIGERENDIANNAO、BIJIBENDIANNAO、ZHINENGSHOUJIHEZHINENGSHOUBIAODENGSHOUCHISHEBEI。

ZHEIWUFAXIANGXIANGWOMENDESHENGHUOMEIYOUJISUANNENGLIDEBANGZHUHUISHIZENYANGDE。LINGRENJIDONGDEBUFENSHI,WOMENRENGRANZAILIULANYINZANGZAIZHEIYANGYIGEKANSIZHINENGHUADEJIQIZHONGDEJUDAJISUANQIANLIDEBIAOMIAN。

SUIZHEWULIANWANGDECHUXIAN,JISUANJISHUDADAOLEXINDESHUIPING,ZHONGXINDINGYILE"ZHINENG"(ZHIHUICHENGSHIRUHEJIANLIYIGEGENGHAODEYIQINGHOUSHIJIE),GONGPINGDISHUO,JIDONGRENXINDESHIKECAIGANGGANGKAISHI。

BENWENZHIZAIHUIDAZHEIYANGYIGEWENTI:"CHUANGANQISHIRUHE"GANJUE"DE? "BINGZHUANZHUYUCHUANGANQIGONGZUODEWULI。

什么是物联网?

GUMINGSIYI,WULIANWANGSHIYIGEHANGAISUOYOULEIXINGSHEBEIDEBAOHUSAN。TAMENYAOMEQIANRUXITONGZHONG,YAOMEZUOWEIYIGEDANDUDESHITICUNZAI。BUGUANZENYANG,GUANJIANSHITAMENTONGGUOHULIANWANGHUXIANGJIAOLIU。MEIYIGEZHEIYANGDESHEBEIDOUYOUYIGEQIANRUSHIFASONGQIHEJIESHOUQI,TONGGUOYINTEWANGSHIXIANTONGXINGUOCHENG。

RANER,MEIYIGEWULIANWANGXITONGDOUSHIBUYIYANGDE,BUYIDINGSHIHESUOYOUDEYINGYONG。SHISHISHANG,TAMENHEWOMENRENLEIHENXIANGSI。MEIGERENDOUSHANZHANGMOUJIANSHI。NIBUNENGZHIWANGYANYUANJIASHIFEIJI,FEIXINGYUANZAIDIANYINGZHONGBIAOYAN。TONGYANG,NIBUNENGZHIWANGYIGEDANYIDEWULIANWANGXITONG(HESHEBEI)LAIZUOSUOYOUDESHIQING。YINCI,GONGCHENGSHISHEJIBUTONGDEXITONGLAIZHIXINGBUTONGDERENWU,YITIGONGZUIHAODEJIEGUO。

ZAIXIANDAISHANGYEZHONG,GUKESHISHANGDI,SUOYOUXINGYEDOUSHIRUCI。YINCI,XITONGSHEJIZHEZONGSHISHEJI、SHENGCHANHEYUNSONGWULIANWANGXITONG,YITIGONGLIANGHAODEYONGHUTIYAN。Vera KozyrSUOZHU《RUHEZUOWULIANWANGYINGJIANCHANPINKAIFA》CONGYINGJIANCHANPINDEJIAODUCHUFA,ZHONGSHENSUOYOULIYIXIANGGUANZHETOURUDESHIJIANHEJINGLILAICHUANGJIANDUANDAODUAN、JICHAJIYONGSHIXITONG。

ZAITANSUOWULIANWANGSHEBEIDENEIBUZHIQIAN,QUFENSHEBEIHEXITONGSHIHENZHONGYAODE。

YIGESHEBEIJIUXIANGYIGEDANDUDECHENGYUAN,ERXITONGJIUXIANGYIGEBAOHANGERENDETUANDUI。YINCI,SHEBEISHIXITONGDEYIBUFEN,FANZHIYIRAN。

物联网系统的组成部分

RENHEXITONGDOUYOUDUOGEDANDUDEZUJIAN(HEZIZUJIAN)ZUCHENG,TAMENGONGTONGNULISHIXIANYIGEGONGTONGDEMUBIAO。CIWAI,ZUOWEIYIGEXITONG(TUANDUI)DEYIBUFENKEYIQUEBAOGENGGAODESHENGCHANLIHEGENGHAODEJIEGUO。WULIANWANGXITONGDEZHUYAOZUCHENGBUFENBAOKUO:

感应物理量的传感器

XIANCHANGZHONGYANGWEIKONGZHIQI,KONGZHICHUANGANQIHEQITABUJIANZHIXINGDESUOYOUDONGZUO;

YUNDUAN,SHUJUFENXIHECHULI,DUIJIESHOUDAODESHUJUJINXINGFENXIHECHULI;

FASONGQIHEJIESHOUQITONGGUOHULIANWANGZAIBUTONGDECHUANGANQI、CHUANGANQIHEWEIKONGZHIQIYUZHONGYANGYUNFUWUQIZHIJIANJIANLITONGXIN;

YUYONGHUTONGXINBINGZHIXINGYONGHUZHISHIDERENWUDEYONGHUJIEMIAN。

物联网传感器:通向现实世界的桥梁

WULIANWANGXITONGDEYIGEHENHAODELIZISHIZHINENGSHOUJI,TATONGCHANGBAOKUO:

YONGYUQUEDINGWEIZHIDEQUANQIUDINGWEIXITONG(GPS)MOKUAI;

GANCEHUANJINGWENDUDEWENDUCHUANGANQI;

YIGEMAIKEFENGKEYIGANZHIYONGHUDESHENGYIN;

JINJULICHUANGANQI,YONGYUGANYINGYONGHUYUSHOUJIDEJULI,BINGZAITONGHUAGUOCHENGZHONGSUODINGSHOUJI。

ZHINENGSHOUJISHANGDEBUTONGYINGYONGSHIYONGBUTONGDECHUANGANQI。LIRU,GUGEDITUYOUYIGEYONGHUJIEMIAN(YIGEYINGYONGCHENGXU),KEYIYUGPSMOKUAIJIAOHUBINGSHOUJIWEIZHIZUOBIAO。TATONGGUOHULIANWANGLIANJIECHULISHUJU,BANGZHUYONGHULUYOUDAOMUDEDI。

DIANCHIGUANLIXITONG(BMS)SHISHIYONGDUOGECHUANGANQIDEWULIANWANGXITONGDELINGYIGELIZI。BMSSHIYIZHONGBAOHUHEGUANLIDIANCHICAOZUODEDIANZIXITONG。JIANERYANZHI,TASHIDIANCHIDEGERENKANHUREN。

CHUANGANQIJIUXIANGSHIJISUANJISHIJIEHEXIANSHISHIJIEZHIJIANDEWANGGUAN。YINCI,CHUANGANQIXUYAOJIANGTAZAIXIANSHISHIJIEZHONGGANZHIDAODERENHEDONGXIZHUANHUANCHENGJISUANJINENGGOULIJIEDETESHUSHIWU。

ERZHEILIANGGESHIJIEZHIJIANDEGONGTONGLIANXIJIUSHIDIANNENG。

YINCI,WOMENDECHULECHUANGANQIDEJISHUDINGYI——WULIANWANGXITONGZHONGDECHUANGANQIGANZHISUOXUDEWULILIANG,BINGJIANGQIZHUANHUANWEIDIANXINHAO,ZHIJIEHUOTONGGUOXIANCHANGWEIKONGZHIQICHUANSHUDAOJIYUYUNDEZHONGYANGFUWUQI。

WULIANWANGCHUANGANQISHIWULIANWANGXITONGZHONGSHIYONGDECHUANGANQI。

微机电系统(MEMS)与物联网传感器的传感机理

WEIJIDIANXITONG(MEMS)SHIYIZHONGWEIXITONGJISHU(MST),TAYOUBANDAOTICAILIAO(RUGUI)ZUCHENG,QICHICUNZAIWEIMIFANWEINEI。

DADUOSHUTANCEJIXIENENGDECHUANGANQIDOUYIMOUZHONGFANGSHISHIYONGMEMSJISHU。JIASUDUJISHIYIGEFEICHANGDIANXINGDELIZI。ZHEIZHUYAOSHIYOUYUKUAISUZENGZHANGHEDUIJISUANJIDEJUDAYILAI。

YOUYUMEMSJISHUDEZHIZAOCAILIAOSHIBANDAOTI,QIZHUYAOYOUDIANSHIKEYIQIANRUJICHENGDIANLU(IC)。JICHENGDIANLUBAOKUODUICONGCHUANGANQIJIESHOUDAODESHUJUQIZUOYONGDEQITAJISUANZUJIAN(YEYOUBANDAOTICAILIAOGOUCHENG)。

SHISHISHANG,XIAOCHICUNHEXINPIANJICHENGDADAJIANGDILECHENGBEN。NIKEYIHUABUDAO250YINGBANG(3.34MEIYUAN)MAIDAOYIGEJIYUMEMSDEJIASUJI。CIWAI,JIYUMEMSDECHUANGANQIJUYOUGAOLINGMINDUHEJIANCEWEIXIAOBIANHUADEYOUDIAN,ZHEISHIQIANRENWUFAXIANGXIANGDE。

传感机构类型及工作原理

GENJUYINGYONG,XITONGKEYIBAOKUOYIGEHUODUOGECHUANGANQI,GANCEBUTONGDEWULILIANG,CONGERJUYOUDUTEDEGANCEJIZHI。MEMSJISHUZHONGJIANGWULIBIANHUAZHUANHUANWEIDIANXINHAODELIANGZHONGZUILIUXINGDECHUANGANJIZHISHI:

1、JIYUDIANZUDECHUANGAN

2、DIANRONGSHICHUANGAN

ZHEILIANGZHONGLEIXINGDECHUANGANJIZHIDOUCAIYONGLEYIGEJIANDANDEYUANLI——WULILIANGDERENHEBIANHUADOUSHITONGGUOCHUANGANQISUOYONGCAILIAODEDIANZUHUODIANRONGDEBIANHUALAIBUZHUODE。YINCI,WULILIANGDEJIAODABIANHUABIAOMINGCAILIAODEDIANZUHUODIANRONGBIANHUAJIAODA,FANZHIYIRAN。

ZHEILIANGZHONGLEIXINGDEZHUYAOQUBIEZAIYUZHEILIANGZHONGJIZHIDEGONGZUOYUANLI。JIYUDIANZUDECHUANGANXITONGSHIYONGDIANZU,ERJIYUDIANRONGDECHUANGANXITONGSHIYONGDIANRONG。

基于电阻的传感机制(使用MEMS技术)

YIGEDUOSHIJIYILAI,WOMENYIZHISHIYONGDIANZUDIANZULAICELIANG、FENXI、KONGZHIHEGUANCHAGEZHONGWULILIANG。RUQIANSUOSHU,DANGYIGEWULILIANG(RUYALI)FASHENGBIANHUASHI,DIANZUDEBIANHUALIANGJUEDINGLEZHEIGELIANGDEBIANHUALIANG。

DIANZUDEBIANHUASHOUWULIYUANLIDEKONGZHI,RUGUANGDAOXIAOYING、BANDAOTIDEREZUXIAOYINGHEYAZUXIAOYING[1]。

TONGGUOWULIJIHEJIEGOUDEBIANHUAJINXINGCHUANGAN–CAILIAODEDIANZUQUJUEYUCAILIAODEJIHEJIEGOU、ZHANGDUHEHENGJIEMIANJI。ZHANGDUHUO/HEHENGJIEMIANJIDERENHEBIANHUADOUJIANGZHIJIEYINGXIANGCAILIAODEZULI。

YAZUXIAOYING-YAZUCAILIAOSHIYIZHONGTESHUDECAILIAO,DANGCAILIAOJINGLIZHURUTUI、LAHUOJIYADENGJIXIEBIANXINGSHI,QIDIANZUHUIFASHENGBIANHUA。YINCI,YALI、ZHENDONGHEJIASUDUCELIANGWULIANWANGCHUANGANQITONGCHANGSHIYONGYAZUCAILIAO。

物联网传感器中使用的其他基于电阻的传感机制

JINGUANJIYUMEMSDEWULIANWANGCHUANGANQIDUIJIXIELIANG、WULILIANGFEICHANGYOUXIAO,DANDIANZUSHICHUANGANQIJIANCEFEIJIXIELIANG(RUGUANGHEWENDU)DECAOZUOSHIBUYIYANGDE。YINCI,CHUANGANJIZHIFASHENGBIANHUA。

光感应-为了检测光,需要一种特殊的感光材料。植物通过被称为光感受器的特殊分子来探测光。类似地,任何光传感传感器都使用光刻胶,这种材料的电阻随着光强度的增加而降低。光敏电阻或俗称LDR是一种非常流行的用于检测光的物联网传感器。

温度传感-与光传感类似,温度传感也需要能够接受环境温度变化的材料。大多数温度传感器由热敏电阻组成,热敏电阻是一种电阻随温度升高而降低的材料。例如,防止现代锂离子电池过度充电的一个参数就是在热敏电阻的帮助下检测电池温度。

化学传感器-这些传感器用于检测特定的化学物质。该传感器包含一个由一种材料制成的传感层,只要与化学物质发生反应,其电阻就会发生变化。例如,许多物联网系统使用MQ系列(MQ9、MQ2、MQ7等)气体传感器。它能检测出一氧化碳、液化石油气和甲烷等各种气体的存在。

 

 

TU1——JIYUDIANZUDECHUANGANQI

转换为电信号

KEYISHUO,DIERGEZUILIUXINGDEKEXUEFANGCHENGSHI,OUMUDINGLV(V=IR)JIANLILEDIANLIU、DIANYAHEDIANZUZHIJIANDEZHIJIEGUANXI。ZHEIGEDINGLVDEMIAOCHUZAIYU,DIANZUDERENHEWEIXIAOBIANHUADOUKEYIZAISHUNJIANZHUANHUANCHENGDIANXINHAO(DIANYAHUODIANLIU)。

 

 

TU2——DIANZUCHUANGANWULIBIANHUADAODIANXINHAODEZHUANHUAN

YINCI,MEIZHONGJIYUDIANZUDEWULIANWANGCHUANGANQI(BAOKUOMEMSJISHU)DOUZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEDISHIYONGOUMUDINGLV。

物联网传感器中基于电容的传感机制

JIYUDIANRONGDECHUANGANJIZHITONGGUOGAIBIANCAILIAODEDIANRONGLAIBUZHUOWULILIANGDEBIANHUA,JIUXIANGDIANZUYIYANG,QUJUEYUCAILIAODEWULIJIHEJIEGOU。

RANER,JIHUSUOYOUJIYUDIANRONGDECHUANGANXITONGZHUYAOYILAIYUWULIJIHEJIEGOUDEBIANHUA——MIANJI、JULIHECAILIAODEDIANRONGNENGLI(YOUQIKECUNCHUDEDIANHELIANGLAIMIAOSHU)。

CHUMOCHUANGANQISHIWULIANWANGXITONGZHONGZUICHANGJIANDEDIANRONGSHICHUANGANQIZHIYI。ZHINENGSHOUJISHIYONGYOUXUDUOCHUMOCHUANGANQIZUCHENGDECHUMOPING。BENZHISHANG,TASHIYIGEYALICHUANGANQI,KEYIJIANCELAIZISHENTIJIECHUDEYALI/LI。

DANGPINGMUSHOUDAOWULICHUMOCIJISHI,SHIJIADEYALIHUIGAIBIANPINGMUDEMIANJIHUOJULI,CONGERCHUFAPINGMUXIAFANGDIANRONGZHIDEBIANHUA。

ZHEIZHONGDIANRONGDEBIANHUAJIUXIANGYIGEDIANZIKAIGUAN,JIANGDIANXINHAOQUDONGDAOXIAYIJI。TU3SHICHULECHUMOCHUANGANQIDEGONGZUOYUANLI。

 

 

TU3–DIANRONGSHICHUMOCHUANGANQIDE2DHE3DGONGZUO

YUSHIYONGOUMUDINGLVDEJIYUDIANZUDECHUANGANXITONGLEISI,JIYUDIANRONGDEXITONGYOUZIJIDUTEDEGUANXI,JIANGDIANRONGDEBIANHUAYINGSHEDAODIANYAHEDIANLIU。

电容式与电阻式传感

ZAIDIANZUCHUANGANZHONG,YIXIEWULILIANG,RUGUANGHEWENDU,XUYAOYIZHONGTESHULEIXINGDECAILIAO。QIZHONGCUNZAILIBI,YIFANGMIAN,DIANZUDEBIANHUADUIBEICELIANGSHIWEIYIDE。DANLINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHEIZHONGDUTEXINGXUYAOWANQUANBUTONGDECELIANG/CHUANGANCHENGXU。

XIANGFAN,DADUOSHUJIYUDIANRONGDECHUANGANXITONGBAOCHITONGYIDECHUANGANGUOCHENG,YINWEIZHEIZHONGBIANHUAZHUYAOSHIYOUYUWULIJIHEDEBIANHUA。CIWAI,YUDIANZUSHICHUANGANQIXIANGBI,TAMENXIANGDUIJIAOXIN,MUQIANJINXIANYUSHIYONGMEMSJISHUDECHUANGANJIXIEXITONG。

结论

CIWAI,WULIANWANGZHISHICHUANGANQISHEJIDEYIBUFEN。XITONGBIXUYOUXIAODICHULIJIESHOUDAODESHUJU,BINGGENJUYONGHUXUQIUTIGONGYIYINGYONGCHENGXUWEIZHONGXINDEJIEGUO。

MUQIAN,WULIANWANGCHUANGANQIYIJINGSHENTOUDAOZHIZAOYE,ZIDONGHUALEDADUOSHURENGONGCAOZUO,XINGCHENGLEYIGEQUANXINDEFENZHI,JIAOZUOGONGYEWULIANWANG(IIOT)。

YUGERENDIANNAOHEZHINENGSHOUJIBUTONGDESHI,WULIANWANGJISHUHAIMEIYOUZAIWOMENDESHENGHUOZHONGDAILAIJUDADEBIANGE。ZAICIZHIQIAN,ZHENGGEWULIANWANGSHENGTAIXITONGXUYAOJIXUFAZHAN。

CANKAOWENXIAN

[1] W. Y. Du, S. W. Yelich, "Resistive and Capacitive Based Sensing Technologies", Sensors and Transducers Journal, April, 2008

[2] P&S Technologies, "P&S OPC271 Opto-Potentiometer", TNT Audio, June, 2009

[3] Wikimedia Common Contributors, "Photoresistor 2.jpg", Wikimedia Commons, The Free Media Repository, November, 2018

[4] "NTC Thermistor.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, The Free Media Repository, September 2019

[5] Wikimedia Common Contributors, "R against T for a thermistor.png," Wikimedia Commons, The Free Media Repository, July 2020

[6] Wikimedia Common Contributors, "PeizoAccelThoery.gif," Wikimedia Commons, The Free Media Repository, July 2008

[7] Indiamart, "Standard MQ 9 Combustible Gas Sensor"

[8] D. Fischer, "Capacitive Touch Sensors," Fujitsu Microelectronics Europe GmbH, Jan 2021

 
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